The information provided on this page supplements research and data presented at the Mastitis Conference 2011 in Utrecht Netherlands and at the British Mastitis Conference. The abstract for the research that was presented by Dr. Derek Forbes and William Gehm summarizes the basis of how and why conventional milking machines cause mastitis. The research paper provides the research in greater detail with the foundation of the research by Dr.Forbes documented in his thesis. The thesis provides detailed information on research proving that the liner pinch created by conventional milking machines is responsible for pushing non-motile bacteria back up the teat canal into the teat sinus to cause an intermammary infection (mastitis).

Abstract of research presented

Research Paper for information presented

Forbes thesis

Additional information in the form of videos and photos can be found at

The following provided are references to studies noted in the presented research and provide additional supporting information on the general topic of mastitis.

Documented studies of CoPulsation™:

Study of a small commercial herd comparing CoPulsation™ to conventional milking system

Study of milk flow rates

Study of teat size

Commercial herd data for CoPulsation™

University study proving CoPulsationtm prevents new Staph. aureus infections, see table 2 data for Note that this study duration was limited to 6 months on each type of milking system and therefore not a sufficient duration to improve teat canal health and prove the difference in reducing environmental mastitis as shown in the Commercial herd study above. For more details see . The Forbes research provides the physical explanation for how and why CoPulsation virtually eliminates all new contagious mastitis cases.

Additional References:

Veterinary Times Article by Forbes

Functional description of CoPulsationtm detailing how liner action is different

The role of the milking system in udder health

Irish teat swelling study for conventional milking machines

Irish teat damage study for conventional milking machines

Dr. Reitsma study showing increased mastitis going from simultaneous to alternating to sequential pulsation

Dr. Reitsma study showing need for longer rest phase

Research has proven that teat canals remain open after being milked with a conventional milking machine

Videos showing difference

Teats not swollen or reddened and not milk wetted upon machine removal

Cow stands calmly and chews cud while milking at continuous peak let down

Sustained peak flow, uniform udder milk down

To see more videos showing performance differences and comparisons to conventional milking machines visit

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Summary Presentation

Presentation of milking machine history and the impact on mastitis


LR Gehm markets several products to dairy farmers: